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Tahira Khanam

This paper attempts to explore the strong tendency of learners of English as a second language (L2), living in Punjab (Pakistan) in the use of English articles and also investigates whether a difference is there in errors committed by the secondary and advance learners in the use of English articles. It also focuses on what kind of errors are committed by the learners on category basis. For that hypotheses adopted were (1) All the learners in Punjab (Pakistan) either at secondary or advance level have strong tendency of using English articles. (2) There is no significant difference in the errors committed by L2 secondary and advance learners in the use of English articles. For this purpose a questionnaire was distributed among randomly selected 35 respondents belonging to 2 groups as secondary ranged 14-18 years doing their Matric and advance 2nd language (L2) learners of English ranged 22-33 years, doing M.A, M.Phil. and Ph.D. For the first hypothesis 1 Sample t Test was applied. The result revealed that all the learners either at secondary or advance level have strong tendency of using English articles. For the 2nd hypothesis Independent Sample t Test was applied. The result revealed that there is a significant difference between the errors committed by the secondary and advance learners. Then for identifying the difference in errors committed by both the groups, category wise Independent Sample t Test was applied and the result showed that in generic, zero and anaphoric use of article there is a significant difference while as determiners in countable, non-countable noun phrases and as specific use there is no significant difference in both the groups.

Aaisha Umt Ur Rashid

This research article explores South African playwright Athol Fugard’s use of therapeutic techniques for individuals living in a racially segregated society. While focusing on the dreadful damages inflicted by Apartheid upon the psyche of the South African Black man, the paper aims at emphasizing on the Post-Apartheid burden which led to the prolonged mental enslavement even when the chains of servitude were lifted. Through the lens of psychoanalysis, the paper investigates how, using drama as a mode of mental therapy, the playwright employs certain psychological techniques to repair the traumatized minds of his characters. Opposing the idea of being a slave to a dominating oppressor, Fugard instigates an urge in his protagonists for freedom from the shackles of mental slavery while inculcating a sense of self in them. The study throws light on Fugard’s works as agents of collective change for the deprived black majority. Keywords: Apartheid, Athol Fugard, De-Stressing, Drama, Post- Apartheid, Psychoanalysis

Rabia Ashraf1, Shazia Aziz2, and Umara Shaheen3

The present study’s focus rests upon analyzing Richard Matheson’s short story Button Button, (1970) an American postmodern literary text, with respect to Jean Baudrillard’s concept of the ‘system of needs’ as presented in his work, The Consumer Society: Myths and Structure (1970) with special emphasis on deciphering the socio-economic dynamics of the post-modern civilized man’s never ending pursuit and hunt for both material and monetary gains resulting in the ignorance of moral considerations accompanied by deconstruction of the sense of Self. In this connection, the consequences of the degeneration of human set of moral values have been examined with particular reference to Man’s Race Against Himself and Entropy of Feeling, two deadly sins discussed in Konrad Lorenz’s (1974) “Civilized Man’s Eight Deadly Sins”. The study finds out that the female protagonist stands out as the epitome of a typical hollow, post-modern self as she is blinded by greed and competition to supersede in the social hierarchical structure where selfimposed individual preferences outdo the collective benefit or welfare.Having similar priorities on a macro level, the consumer society engulfs individuals by compelling them to make choices (deadly sins) that are potentially destructive forces for an ideal survival in a consumedly entrenched post-modern society. Keywords: Consumerism, post-modern, self, seven deadly sins, entropy of feelings

Basila Husnain

The diversity and complexity of women and madness as a subject in English Literature gained much attention in the wake of feminism and post-colonialism. However, the representation of borderline cases among women in literature has surfaced as a popular subject only in the recent years. Many contemporary fictional works with feminist and psychological themes concentrate on female protagonists with borderline personality disorders for example eating and sleeping disorders, abandonment issues and compulsive behavior. The current research is an attempt to highlight the significance of this emerging narrative and to propose that it has become a new form of resistance within the feminist narrative. For this purpose, the paper critically analyses The Edible Woman (1969) by Margaret Atwood and The Vegetarian (1997) by Han Kang within the framework of psychological and feminist theories. The scope of this study is to evaluate the significance of BPD female characters (borderline personality disorder) as more impactful agents of change against the oppressive systems and societies. Keywords: abjection, borderline personality disorders, feminism, patriarchal oppression, resistance, narrative

Dr Amara Khan

Children’s literature demands serious consideration because it promotes and invites critical theory, especially in the scholarship of the texts relative to children’s development as readers. The article documents certain moves in this approach so as to establish the progress of a discipline related to scholastic response and contemporary exploration. Thus, conspicuous areas of my focus in feminist theory will contain discernment in sex/gender, subjugation, economic bias, control and dominance, gender roles, and stereotypes. I have observed the dual opinions about the female character, presented by the patriarchal fairy tale, delivering mainly recognisable consideration to the absence of care to the traditional inactive princess, and the consequent presentation of the resilient horrific woman character. In the article, I realise the girl in the text of the fairy tale in relation to its depiction in Walt Disney adaptations in order to ascertain an assortment of perspectives on girlhood across borders. Keywords: Dominance, Fairy tales, Gender roles, Patriarchy, Stereotypes, Subjugation, Walt Disney

Tayyaba Ahsan1, Sarah Abdullah2

Multiple feminists and postcolonial theorists have explored the “female experience” in the history of colonization and the postcolonial life. However male experience within the same context has not been processed enough. Gender scholars have recently begun to draw attention to the gap within postcolonial scholarship that represents male identity in legendary or heroic manner, thus repudiating the masculine sexual anxieties fostered by colonialism in the first place and by Orientalism afterwards. Taking up Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North, this article will explore how the protagonist in the novel deploys his sexuality to occupy a privileged subject position in the novel; delineating how the sexualized political control over women’s bodies inspires the construction of his postcolonial subjectivity. In doing so it will address the obscure notions of masculinity, the male postcolonial experience and the sexual anxieties of the African male in postcolonial African novel in opposition to the unidimensional representation of hypermasculinity in Oriental discourse. Keywords: Desire, Masculinity, Novel, Postcolonial, Power, Tayeb Salih

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A seminar on Impacts of Corporal Punishment on Child’s Development was organized by the students of Social Work Department

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